Monthly Archives: April 2011

Obama’s Young Mother Abroad

Part of being an adult is seeing your parents “as people who have their own strengths, weaknesses, quirks, longings.” By Janny Scott The photograph showed the son, but my eye gravitated toward the mother. That first glimpse was surprising — … Continue reading

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Ludovico Einaudi – Primavera

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Ludovico Einaudi Divenire – To Become

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Hot and Steamy

The oldies are the new goodies? Bathhouse is a such common thing, part of our daily routine for ages .. By the way, the best place to watch an ice hockey game in New York is at Russian bath .. … Continue reading

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清末闸北开辟“通商场”再探

张笑川 【英文标题】Probing into the “Tong Shang Chang” in Zhabei District of Shanghai in Late Qing Dynasty 【作者简介】张笑川,副教授,苏州科技学院历史系。(苏州 215011) 【内容提要】 闸北是20世纪上半叶上海华界的重要城区,其市政建设肇始于20世纪初闸北“通商场”的开辟。一直以来,学界多认为闸北“通商场”开辟于1900年,但根据留存档案资料和其他相关记载,闸北开辟“通商场”实肇始于1903年。闸北开辟“通商场”最初采取商办的模式,因其时间早于南市“城厢内外总工程局”的设立,故可称之为上海地方自治运动的滥觞。但闸北的市政建设很快由商办转入官办,闸北的商办市政机关——“汇通公司”,在存续之时间、权限之大小、制度之完善和影响之深远等方面,都不能和“城厢内外总工程局”相比。 【关 键 词】闸北 通商场 上海 地方自治 20世纪80年代以来,上海城市史研究日趋兴盛,成果众多,但从空间角度来说,对于租界的发展演变关注较多,近代上海华界的发展状况则相对模糊。这对于构建完整的上海城市史,是需要进一步弥补的缺环。 在20世纪前半叶的上海,闸北是与老城厢(县城和南市)并驾齐驱的华界城区,其市政建设和城市化进程肇始于“闸北通商场”的开辟。关于闸北开辟“通商场”的研究,以蒋慎吾1934年发表的《上海市政的分治时期》为最早。①进入20世纪90年代,闸北开辟“通商场”事件引起更多学者的重视,刘惠吾《上海近代史》和张仲礼《近代上海城市研究》等标志性著作都对其给予很高的评价,视之为上海地方自治运动的滥觞。②他们立论的依据主要是蒋慎吾的《上海市政的分治时期》一文。③但是蒋慎吾所提出的闸北开辟“通商场”时间及市政机关名称,实有商榷的余地。本文将首先对蒋慎吾的相关论述予以驳正,其次结合相关档案复原“闸北通商场”开辟的过程,最后将闸北开辟“通商场”与南市的地方自治运动进行比较,以确定其在上海地方自治运动中的地位和意义。 一 闸北“通商场”开辟的起始年代 最早记载闸北开埠经过的是民国初年编撰的《上海县续志》,称: 闸北工程总局,光绪三十年二月,总督周馥委道员徐乃斌办理。先是,闸北地方逼进租界,日渐兴盛,沈镛、钱康荣等筹款建筑桥路。嗣以商力不济,呈请官办。 闸北工巡总局,即闸北工程总局,光绪三十一年五月,总督委道员汪瑞闿接办。初,工程总局租赁民房,至是,始兴建局屋,易今名。开筑马路,编设警察,次第举办。其警费奏准予北关提拔。(宣统元年改革时废,改设市政厅。)④ 《上海县续志》始修于1912年,1918年修成付梓,距清末闸北开埠时间不远,记载应具有相当可信度。其中出现两个市政机关名称——“闸北工程总局”和“闸北工巡总局”,一开办于光绪三十年,即1904年,一改设于光绪三十一年,即1905年。显然,《县续志》认为“闸北工程总局”和“闸北工巡总局”为一个机构的前后不同名称,皆为官方设立之市政机构,前者因主要从事建桥筑路,故称“工程总局”,后者增加警察事业,故改名“工巡总局”。由于这两个市政机关是《县续志》关于闸北市政建设的最早记载,此后人们遂多依此记载,以1904年“闸北工程总局”的设立作为闸北市政建设的开端。这种说法至少到1934年还在延续。⑤但是细心的读者则会发现,《县续志》中提及1904年闸北工程总局设立之前,地方绅商沈镛、钱康荣等已经在闸北筑路造桥,以后因商力不济,才呈请由官接办,因此闸北工程总局设立的1904年并非闸北市政建设的开端。但是地方绅商筑路造桥的开始时间及其运行机构,《县续志》却没有说明。 1932年7月,柳亚子组建上海通志馆,组织人力研究上海历史。通志馆的蒋慎吾在《上海市政的分立时期》长文中,参考《申报》相关记载,对闸北市政作进一步研究。他得出以下结论:“最先是1900年间,陈绍昌、祝承桂等筹集股款,兴筑桥路工程,并承办一切事宜,当经请准江督联合上、宝地方人士共同组织成立‘闸北工程总局’。”⑥蒋氏的功绩在于,比《县续志》更推进一步,指出闸北开埠的始倡者并非沈镛、钱康荣,而追溯至陈绍昌、祝承桂,并认定其成立时间为1900年。同时,他还指出徐乃斌奉令举办之市政机构名为“上海北市马路工巡总局”,而非“闸北工程总局”。⑦蒋氏将《县续志》记载错误之处予以纠正,模糊之处予以澄清,功不可没。因此,自蒋文发表以来,学界追溯闸北开埠,基本遵循此说。⑧但是蒋文在推进研究的同时,也随之带来了错误。 首先,蒋氏认为陈绍昌、祝承桂等人所组织成立的机构为“闸北工程总局”,这是缺乏依据的。⑨考《县续志》原文,“闸北工程总局”是指1906年即光绪三十二年徐乃斌奉江督令所设机关,此前沈镛、钱康荣等组织的机关,《县续志》并未明言。而蒋文移之命名绅商所办机构,似有臆断之嫌。 其次,蒋氏仅依据《申报》记载,断定闸北开埠时间为1900年(光绪二十六年),亦有轻信之嫌。考蒋氏所依据史料为1917年11月《申报》所载沈镛之《请设闸北工巡捐专局之说帖》⑩。文称:“前光绪二十六年间,绅商祝承桂等拟合上、宝两县地方组织华界商场,禀奉前两江总督刘批准在案。”。蒋氏遂依此认定闸北华界筹划商场始于1900年(光绪二十六年)。沈镛为闸北开埠创始人之一,并一直参与闸北市政管理,其回忆无疑具有很大权威性。但是笔者翻阅上海市档案馆留存闸北档案,(11)发现沈镛关于闸北开埠经过的回忆并不只此,且多有自相矛盾之处,尤其是与档案中所存公牍电令不能相符,因此不足全据。 沈镛在不同时期、不同场合都有关于闸北开埠经过的相关回忆。除蒋氏征引之外,比较详细者为1914年因华、租两界关于“新大桥”权属发生争议,应闸北工巡捐局长要求,详述“新大桥”的建筑始末之信函。其中论及闸北开埠情形,称: 查前清光绪二十四年,有粤商陈绍昌等禀准两江总督刘坤一批准闸北自辟通商场,公牍虽经完备,而工程尚未举行。光绪二十六年间,陈绍昌等因事回粤,议归苏绅祝承桂及镛接办。是年拓展租界之线,而未将一并划入者,盖以华商先经定案无所牵涉者也。旋以沪宁车站甫经组(租)线,江苏巡抚端方电咨外务部,先于车站两旁赶紧自筑通商场,免得将来运兵运械,车站推入租界之内,必受外人制(掣)肘。嗣奉外务部抄案咨明江都,发交祝绅等妥为筹备。时祝绅及镛不能不筹备商款,设法进行。然有地点而无实业,商场何由而兴?因是查照陈绍昌等先经筹建之舢板厂桥梁赶速起造,一面购地百余亩,除开筑马路及沿河驳岸外,建设丝厂及店房、工房等类,首先提倡。一面商同地方绅董钱允利,集设米行,成立米市……初时购地百余亩并造桥之费共需银二十九万五千两,召集商股,名曰汇通公司,所以定桥名汇通桥。迨华界事宜让归官办,始更名曰新大桥。光绪三十年正月,桥工靠(告)成,而祝绅及镛统计办公之款自二十六年冬间起至二十九年年底止,实已消耗银十万两零(“新大桥”工在内),并无官款接济,全恃商人借垫,困难达于极点,力量实在不支,屡次禀请两江总督周馥让归官办。时袁海观为上海道,议定办法,奉周督批明官有筑路设警之权,商有造屋兴市之利,官商联合,共抵于成。旋派徐孝余乃斌为工巡局督办,未及一年周调两广,徐即奉调同往,闸北局务由李时泉君总办。又逾一年,始由两江总督端派汪瑞闿来总局务。汪放江苏巡警道,由总务科姚捷勋接办工巡局,任至宣统三年光复,姚始遁去。此闸北始由商办而改归官办之大略也。彼时外人广辟马路,即以马路为开拓地点,华人欢迎不暇,即以地土可得善价,不论主权,殊为可叹。因是祝绅等起建大桥,开筑马路,有人百计阻扰,艰苦益甚。卒至桥梁告咸,商界大定。而祝绅病故,亏欠商债至十万另六千余两,商力实有不逮,请归官办。光绪三十一年一月间,奉派候补道徐乃斌来沪,奏设闸北工巡总局。嗣以款由海关支拔,并以上海道为工巡总局会办。(12) 如此,则陈绍昌等申请开辟华界商场并得到批准,最早可以上溯至1898年(光绪二十四年),并且租界扩张没有包括此地也是因为“华商先经定案无所牵涉者也”。但是对照档案可以发现,沈镛回忆此段往事虽大体经过属实,时间上却往往错误。(13) 首先,据沈镛回忆,早在1898年(光绪二十四年),至迟在1900年(光绪二十六年),闸北绅商开始筹办开辟商场。但现存档案中最早公文为1903年(光绪二十九年)陈绍昌、陈荣熙禀请修筑舢板厂桥之呈文,至于再早的情况没有记录,在以后之往来文牍中亦未见提及。而按照清代公文惯例,往往在起始引述此前有关文牍内容,因此,似乎只能认为闸北开辟商场之最早动议为光绪二十九年,即1903年。 … Continue reading

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The Secretaries

Conversations on Diplomacy with Hillary Clinton & Henry Kissinger by Charlie Rose this past Wednesday was pretty good. Kissinger is slow (he’s a grand 88 years old man by now) but his mind is still sharp. Hillary dished up few … Continue reading

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Archives of the United States of America

This is the USA’s National Archives Taiwan’s Archives UK’s National Archives .

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New Yorker: China Bans Time Travel

I enjoy reading New Yorker.. .. so it’s bit of shock to read the following by its movie-listings editor at the magazine (since 2005). Honestly, I don’t know nor watch any Chinese TV shows, but I found his reporting somewhat … Continue reading

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James!

I haven’t played with James in a couple of years, at least. Surprisingly we found each other on the same court last week. He’s the most fluid and poetic strokes I don’t see often. It’s very relaxing to play against … Continue reading

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Lin Zhao 林昭

Jiujiu mentioned her few times when I asked him about 揭发检举 during the Cultural Revolution. He said yes he did but he wrote the truthfully, about my Mom’s political views, which were correct after the fall of Gang of Four … Continue reading

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The kissing gouramis

A little accident produced this pair of kissers (Helostoma temminckii). The back bumper (2nd picture below) of the white car has lots of scratches. .. What’s cute was the owner of the white car pointed to them and asked innocently … Continue reading

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The One Who Got Away

Liesl Schillinger’s review of Mary Gordon‘s new novel the love of my youth has two different titles: on the paper is – the one who got away; the web used Old Flames, Eternal City. I’m just wonder why… Picture a … Continue reading

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Quality husbands

CNN GO‘s China surpasses the world in yet another category: Quality husbands. The original article in Chinese 上海老公全球最棒的5个理由.  Shanghainese husbands are renowned as the best in China, and maybe the world. Here are five reasons why: The versatile ma da … Continue reading

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周仲铮画集

CC Chow‘s Painting Collection Edited by Zhou Weizeng May 2009 This is part of A Chinese in Bonn 波恩的中国人. 故乡月映小舟还 There are 12 paintings serenade to poems of Yangzhou in this collection: she harbored strong feelings toward Yangzhou, her hometown … Continue reading

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The beemer girl

Isn’t she young and pretty? And very hot .. I think so. Would you lent her your new BMW for a week for 30 nights of hot sex with her? Please no 3 Series, 5 and up and brand new. … Continue reading

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Spitting

This Times article, Sidewalk Spitting reminded me of a couple’s threesome adventure in New York. Once upon a time, a white couple came to New York vacationing from a corner of Europe where Asians aren’t the dominate race. They both … Continue reading

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Bordeaux in Beijing

Miyun 密云县, Thick Cloud is a county locates in the Northeast of Beijing. Used to be a faraway place for us, when Zhongguancun Blvd still was a two-lane roadway. Now, Thick Cloud is just an hour dash from the heart of Beijing, … Continue reading

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NASSAU COUNTY RED LIGHT CAMERA INTERSECTION LIST PHASE II

FAQs _____________________________ Sept 3, 2011, SB Searingtown Rd/Port Washington @ Northern Blvd; $65 April 9, 2011, SB New Hyde Park Road @ Marcus Ave, $65 April 4, 2011 Marcus Ave @ Lakeville Road; $65 due 6/28 ($50 violation fine, $15 … Continue reading

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